Saxophonist John William "Trane" Coltrane was born on september 23, 1926 in Hamlet, North Carolina. His father John Robert worked as a tailor and played various instruments for their own pleasure. The mother Alice Blair came from a devout Methodist family. Shortly after birth of the son, the family moved to the neighboring industrial city of High Point, where the boy up to the age of twelve a predominantly happy childhood enjoyed. In 1939, however, his father, his grandfather and uncle died, so that the family has had to get through without male breadwinners from then on. Coltrane's mother sought out different jobs, the boy withdrew into itself and began to devote themselves extensively of music. He had in 1938 started playing the clarinet, but changed under the influence of jazz stars like Lester Young, Coleman Hawkins and Johnny Hodges on alto saxophone. After high school graduation, he moved to Philadelphia in 1943, studied at the Ornstein School of Music, the Granoff Center, worked in a sugar refinery and jammed occasionally in different bars and pubs.
Military service verschlug Coltrane to Hawaii (1945-46), where he took his first photographs with a Navy band. He then talked to Jobs in bands of Joe Webb (1946), King Kolax, Big Maybelle and Eddie Vinson (1948) above water. During an engagement in the orchestra of Dizzy Gillespie, he moved in 1949 to the tenor saxophone, but have not had stylistic independence, to stand out as a prominent soloist. He learned still in the ensemble of Earl Bostic (1952), Gay Crosse (1952), Johnny Hodges (1954), worked his ambitious upwards, but had to because of his drug addiction plug artistic setbacks when he kicked out the Hodges Orchestra about 1954 becomes. In 1955 the tide turned by two major events. Coltrane married on October 3, his first wife Naima (1955-66) and a few days later he was engaged already in force as a star of the scene in which Miles Davis Quintet. During the following year caused hard bop recordings as "Miles" (1955) and the legendary "Relaxin '/ Workin' / Steamin '/ Cookin' With The Miles Davis Quintet" sessions (1956).
It was one of the best bands of this era and Coltrane took the opportunity to experiment with ways of breaking away from the previously dominant functional harmonic bases. Research coined this phase the misleading term "Sheets of Sound" ( "soundscapes"), which was less about the creation of surfaces as to the resolution of chords and the relativity of the recent developments of the line Hardbops. The musicians strove to let the felt to be confining harmonic principles of fifths behind Coltrane modified his melodic embossed art by Terzsubstitutionen and other shifts (1958-60). Together with Miles Davis and pianist Bill Evans, he discovered the so-called modality for themselves, a based on the church modes of the Middle Ages art of scale improvisation, which in turn allowed the benefit of a virtually free way of playing during his last creative years behind.
So Coltrane developed within only a decade from ambitious newcomers to the best-paid Jazz Artist Ever. The first recordings under his own name as "First Trane" (1957) was followed by an immense labor-intensive phase in numerous studio bands of the 'Prestige' environment. Coltrane broke up in 1957 successfully from his drug addiction, was with Thelonious Monk in "Five Spot" cheered, returned in 1958 to Miles Davis back and took in 1959 almost simultaneously the two legendary, but stylistically completely different albums "Kind Of blue" (with Davis) and "Giant Steps" on. In "My Favourite Things" he discovered in 1960 the soprano saxophone new fOr jazz and after the expiry of the contract for the record company Atlantic formed the 1961/2 the classic quartet with McCoy Tyner (p), Jimmy Garrison (b) and Elvin Jones (dr ) as an ideal working base out that Coltrane in his search for new forms of expression support. With the recorded in December 1964 anthem "A Love Supreme" Coltrane made his deep religious nature spirituality, Public and albums like "Ascension" brought him the following year finally play the game freely.
As he always clearly turned to the complete dissolution of form, also his musical environment changed. In the last phase of life, he was next to Garrison with his second wife Alice Coltrane (p), Rashied Ali (dr) and Phaorah Sanders (sax) to experience on stage, late works such as "expression" or the percussion duo "Interstellar Space" (both 1967) presented him as introverted Pressurizes with a penchant for spiritual grand gesture. On july 17, 1967 John Coltrane died of liver failure. Its distinctive, tough yet flexible sound, the ecstatic solos and turning to influences beyond the African-American style tradition left as well as the discovery of the soprano saxophone as a complement of the tenor many impulses for the sound development of modern jazz.
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